Working Papers

The Discount for Lack of Marketability in Private Investments in Public Equity


Work in progress (with A. Bernardo, I. Welch)

Working paper will be posted soon.

Abstract: Our paper estimates that shares in Private Investments in Public Equity (PIPEs) offered a discount of 3-4% for each year during which these shares could not be resold. Our estimates make use of the duration of the resale restriction and information about the effects of a regulatory change. In 2008, the SEC amended Rule~144 to shorten the default statutory holding period. Our estimates are smaller than previous estimates and robust to various controls and endogeneity concerns. The discount can be twice as large in offerings in which marketability is a greater concern.

The CEO Beauty Premium


R&R at Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal (with M. G. Colombo, C. Fisch, S. Vismara)

Abstract: How do top executives’ physical attributes impact firm value? Our study combines Upper Echelons Theory (UET) with insights from social psychology and labor economics to investigate how Chief Executive Officers’ (CEOs’) facial attractiveness influences firm valuation by investors in Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs). We document a pronounced CEO beauty premium. The positive relationship between CEO attractiveness and firm valuation is not driven by stereotype-based evaluations; that is, investors do not mistake attractiveness for other latent traits, such as competence, intelligence, likeability, or trustworthiness. Rather, CEO attractiveness seems to bear economic value per se. It helps attract institutional investors and has a sustainable effect on token price performance. Our results are immune to recall and confirmation biases, reverse causality, and unobserved heterogeneity.